In partnership with the Canadian Ditchley Foundation
A Note by the Director
CONTEXT AND WHY THIS WAS IMPORTANT
All the signs are that the Arctic is moving from a stable state to a pervasive instability. Although international cooperation is relatively good, is this enough given the global stakes?
Jean Charest, former Premier of Quebec, and Duane Smith, former President of the Inuit Circumpolar Council (Canada), co-chaired a group that comprised eminent scientists, economists, politicians, government officials and representatives of northern communities, both indigenous and not.
THE ARCTIC: A STATUS REPORT
It is the rate of temperature change that is most concerning and this may exceed the ability of habitats, animals and human beings to adapt. All over the Arctic there are signs of fundamental and irreversible change, which suggests that we are moving from a state that has been broadly stable for thousands of years to one of pervasive instability. Many communities continue to face challenges in developing sustainable local economies. Traditional lifestyles are often no longer a viable option for a variety of factors. Building a modern economy in the north will require much better infrastructure. The Arctic Council still lacks a sufficiently long term and clear vision for the region. But the people of the north are particularly resilient and adaptable. Many issues remain but parts of the north are making significant progress. This will be important given the change to come. With climate and environmental change come opportunities as well as risks for the north. There is real hope, backed up by an unusual degree of international cooperation. But all this could be undermined by the effects of climate change on a uniquely finely balanced eco-system. The bottom line is that the north is not the master of its own fate.
IDEAS AND ACTIONS – NOT NECESSARILY CONSENSUS BUT EMERGING FROM THE DISCUSSION
- A need for leadership on climate change. With President Trump turning his attention to economic interests, there is a need for international leadership of the climate agenda. As an Arctic nation, Canada could play a major role in this.
- A need for less insularity from the Arctic Council, scientists and regional governments. Advocates for the Arctic need to address a broader range of stakeholders.
- A need for a better communications strategy from the Arctic Council. Not enough is being made of the evidence that already exists of fundamental climate change in the Arctic.
- A need for some regional, and perhaps sub-national representation on the Arctic Council.
- Continued gradual development of a longer term vision for the Arctic Council and the region.
Cultural, educational and societal recommendations
- Sustaining families and communities should be at the heart of all policies.
- Northern models for education have to be developed and adopted that take account of the physical and cultural landscape rather than a southern model imposed.
- More recognition is needed for the role of northern cities, town and villages, where most of the people live.
- If people are to remain in the north then they have to be allowed and supported to develop a modern northern economic model.
- More needs to be done to encourage innovation to develop this northern model. Innovation always means risk. Accepting and managing more risk – to both people, environment and capital – is necessary for the north to develop the solutions and economy it needs.
- Improving infrastructure is an obvious need. But this should draw on innovation for the north as above and not simply mean the importation of southern models and systems.
- Developing an Arctic brand with common themes whilst allowing local partnerships and regional variation would allow better marketing of the opportunities of the north.
Scientific and environmental recommendations
- More work is needed on possible futures for the Arctic and their implications.
- Arctic science needs also to professionalise its communications and to be less insular.
- Science needs to encompass traditional knowledge by working much more closely with local communities.
CONTEXT AND WHY THIS WAS IMPORTANT
The Arctic is experiencing change at a human rather than planetary rate. Changes in one aspect of the Arctic, for example the reduction in the thickness and extent of summer sea ice that we are observing, can affect other systems. Put simply, we risk a domino effect where one change accelerates another. The impact of rapid changes in the Arctic on global climate change and sea levels are also hard to model because the climate itself is another complex and non-linear system. This conference addressed the political, environmental and human aspects of these changes and sought to identify areas where different approaches might make a difference at a local, national and global level. We asked whether we were sufficiently alarmed by what was happening in the Arctic and whether the unusually high level of international cooperation was yet good enough, given the scale of challenge and risk.
Jean Charest, former Premier of Quebec, and Duane Smith, former President of the Inuit Circumpolar Council (Canada), co-chaired a group that comprised eminent scientists, economists, politicians, government officials and representatives of northern communities, both indigenous and not. A wide range of countries were represented including Canada, the United States, Russia, Greenland, the United Kingdom, France, China, South Korea and Japan. We failed to secure the level of Nordic representation we would have liked. The meeting was held at the Kwanlin Dün Cultural Centre in Whitehorse, Yukon. We are grateful for the support of Canadian Ditchley, the Canadian government, the Yukon Government and the Kwanlin Dün First Nation for making this unique conference possible.
THE ARCTIC: A STATUS REPORT
REASONS TO BE ALARMED
The Arctic has been warm before, most recently 4.5 million years ago. But we should not take false comfort from conditions that predate human civilisation. It is the rate of temperature change that is most concerning. Temperatures are changing at a faster rate than at any point in the last 45 million years. The rate of change may exceed the ability of habitats, animals and human beings to adapt. The Arctic climate is a complex and non-linear system, meaning that small changes can lead to major change if combined. All over the Arctic there are signs of fundamental and irreversible change, which suggest that we are moving from a state that has been broadly stable for thousands of years to pervasive instability. Climate change is not all about warming. Some places will perversely get colder. From the climate, through the animal kingdom to human communities, it is rapid change that is the unifying theme.
The trend for less extensive and less thick summer sea ice is clear. The reduction in summer sea ice is having knock on effects, for example undermining the stability of long-standing coastal ice. This is, in turn, undermining the stability of the ice sheet and glaciers on the immediate shore in some areas. The reduction of the sea ice in summer means more heat absorption by the open waters, further contributing to warming of the Arctic Ocean. On land, the permafrost is increasingly thawing in summer, meaning that whilst the reduction in ice is opening up the Arctic Ocean in summer, travel and construction across the Arctic landscape is becoming even more difficult. On a global scale, thawing of the permafrost may release large amounts of additional carbon and methane into the atmosphere which could further accelerate climate change. An increased flow of relatively warm fresh water into the Arctic Ocean could have additional impact on the temperature and currents of the Arctic Ocean, beyond the obvious effect of rising sea levels. Some coastal Inuit villages are already having to move because of rising sea levels.
Animal species are on the move in response to changing conditions. Grizzly and other southern bears are moving north and are either fighting or mating with polar bears to produce hybrids. Polar bears are also struggling with the less consistent range of summer sea ice. Hunters are spotting beavers in the high Arctic for the first time. In Canada, Caribou numbers have dropped by 1.5 million through a combination of changing climate and other uncertain factors. Fish stocks too are shifting from long established areas to new ones further north as the ocean warms. There are animal winners and losers.
The prosperity and social health of the indigenous and non-indigenous population of the Arctic and northern regions is very varied and cannot be generalised but many communities continue to face challenges in developing sustainable local economies. Traditional lifestyles are often no longer a viable option for a variety of factors. The rich natural resources that sustained a hunter gatherer lifestyle are often no longer available to the same extent as earlier generations would have enjoyed. Sometimes communities have been moved to more marginal areas due to colonisation. Elsewhere, as in Alaska, hunting is highly regulated. In some communities, the transmission of traditional skills to new generations is breaking down. Often, young indigenous people find themselves stuck between their community's past and a future as part of a broader nation that is failing to deliver economic opportunities. High school completion rates remain very low in indigenous communities because of a combination of lack of motivation due to lack of economic opportunity and the difficulty of delivering a quality education to remote, widely distributed, small pockets of people. At worst this leads to despair, alcoholism, drug abuse and high rates of suicide amongst Inuit men in particular. These problems are not unique to indigenous people. Further south, some northern non-indigenous communities are also struggling with a lack of economic opportunity and loss of identity. These communities do not receive the same high level of subsidies provided to Arctic and indigenous communities in Canada in particular. These subsidies can bring their own problems – a dependency on welfare and other forms of state handouts which can undermine personal and community pride.
Building a modern economy in the north will require much better infrastructure. Transport links are primarily north to south rather than between communities and the thawing of the permafrost will make improving this harder still. In many areas there is a housing crisis with development and immigration to the area driving up prices. Construction is very expensive because of the need to import materials. Food security is fragile, with prices very high where food has to be flown in. Even Alaska only has three days of food if shipping were to be disrupted. Broadband is patchy and relatively slow, limiting access to the new economy. Most power in northern Canada is still generated by the import of diesel. There is no local refining of petroleum or production of gas. Renewable energy initiatives remain rare. In the Russian north there is a somewhat different challenge, with a need for the redevelopment of extensive infrastructure and systems established under the Soviet Union in order to fit a market based economy.
The Arctic Council still lacks a sufficiently long term and clear vision for the region. Policy making is lagging behind the rate of change. President Trump has abandoned the United States' leadership on climate change action, prioritising national economic interests.
REASONS TO BE OPTIMISTIC
The people of the north are particularly resilient and adaptable. In Canada, Greenland and many other countries, indigenous nations, non-indigenous northern settlers and central and regional governments are finding ways to move on from the colonial period and its dismissal of indigenous rights, values and culture. In Canada the settlement of land claims and final self-governance agreements mark a promising new stage in a long troubled relationship. Devolution of powers to Greenland by Denmark has seen significant progress on education with a doubling of high school completion rates to 25 percent in the last five years. Whilst some indigenous communities remain stuck between two worlds, in others there is a resurgence of pride in identity and culture, fostered by strong government financial support. Many issues remain but parts of the north are making significant progress. This will be important given the change to come.
With climate and environmental change come opportunities as well as risks for the north. President Obama's executive orders restricting development of energy resources in Alaska were popular with environmentalists but seen as too black and white by local communities. Additional regulations added to oil prospecting and production costs. President Trump's administration will likely be more permissive if Congress permits. Although there are serious environmental risks in such development, to date these have been managed effectively. As well as oil, the north is rich in minerals and there are great opportunities for mining. There are growing signs of innovation and interest in the new digital economy. Better infrastructure could unlock this and should be achievable as the challenges of establishing effective broadband coverage are more manageable than the establishment of road and rail links. The raw capital of the new knowledge economy is intelligence and education. The Arctic has plenty of the former. Better broadband infrastructure could enable rapid improvement on the latter through distance learning.
Tourism is the fastest growing industry. The developed and urban world has a hunger for the resources of solitude and silence that the northern wilderness offers. Again there are risks to the landscape and the integrity of indigenous communities but these should be manageable with careful policies. The Arctic Council is making progress on integrated search and rescue arrangements in the expectation of more shipping, both freight and cruise, as the ice opens up. The IMO is finalising the polar code suggested at Ditchley's 1971 Arctic conference.
Although the Arctic Council is not yet capable of developing and delivering the strategy the Arctic needs, compared to many other multilateral fora it is a beacon of light, a rare island of reasonableness. Where states have conflicting claims on jurisdiction, ownership through the continental shelf and borders, they are being pursued through the international rules-based system based on the law of the sea. The inclusion of Russia is notable compared to the complete breakdown of trust and normal relations between Russia and Western Europe further south in Europe. The Arctic remains the most peaceful region on the planet and although military activity will likely increase, this does not look like a flashpoint.
International scientific cooperation is unusually close. Understanding of the Arctic and its people is deepening and underpinning better policy to a degree. States continue to invest in Arctic research, even if not sufficiently. The involvement of local people in science is gradually growing, even if not as quickly as it should and the fly in and fly out approach of some Arctic scientists is beginning to change.
There remain serious problems in the leadership, management and economy and society of the north but these affect, on a global scale, tiny numbers of people for what are in many cases wealthy and powerful states such as Canada, Denmark, the United States, Russia, Norway, Sweden and Finland. With countries no longer pursuing blinkered and harmful policies in the north or thoughtlessly importing southern political, economic and social models, there is real hope, backed up by an unusual degree of international cooperation. But all this could be undermined by the effects of climate change on a uniquely finely balanced eco-system. The bottom line is that the north is not the master of its own fate. The answers here lie in a global approach to a global climate system.
IDEAS AND ACTIONS – NOT NECESSARILY CONSENSUS BUT EMERGING FROM THE DISCUSSION
A need for leadership on climate change. With President Trump turning his attention to economic interests, there is a need for international leadership of the climate agenda that builds on the COP 21 accord. As an Arctic nation, Canada could play a major role in this. China continues to look solid and is talking to Russia, who would need to be brought along.
A need for less insularity from the Arctic Council, scientists and regional governments. Advocates for the Arctic, its science, its cities, its regions, its economy and its people, whether indigenous or not, spend too much time speaking to each other and not enough time communicating to a broader range of stakeholders that includes the publics of states further south; governments around the world; the media; and the private sector from oil and mineral companies through to the major technology service providers in Silicon Valley.
A need for a better communications strategy from the Arctic Council, regional governments, First Nations and others to support the shift suggested above. Not enough is being made of the evidence that already exists of fundamental climate change in the Arctic. Not enough is being done to highlight the democratic experiments underway between the government and First Nations in Canada or in Greenland with increasing moves towards independence from Denmark. The Arctic is characterised by being quite “governmental and 1990s” in its approach, where other cities and regions around the world are using their devolved resources directly to harness the power of modern communications and social media, in order to bypass both their own governments and governments in foreign states to reach an international public. Developing community to community relationships could be part of this strategy.
A need for some regional representation on the Arctic Council. Whilst it was obvious that not all regions could be represented on the Arctic Council without it becoming unworkable, it would make sense for the regional perspective to have a voice through a regional representative seat amongst the permanent participants. This would force closer coordination between sub-national and regional governments around the Arctic. Better communications, though, might reduce demands for observer status at the Arctic Council from states and regions alike.
Continued gradual development of a longer term vision for the Arctic Council and the region. We have to be realistic about how much the Council can achieve and how quickly it can develop. But developing longer term goals must be a priority. This should include, building on the science, a vision for the Arctic we need and planning for the possible outcomes we may get from climate change.
Cultural, educational and societal recommendations
Sustaining families and communities should be at the heart of all policies. The aim should be to help families and communities deal themselves with problems of violence, abuse, drugs and alcohol. Money spent quietly on this was likely to be more effective than noisy public education campaigns. Pride in identity is a crucial aspect of this but economic opportunities are essential too.
Northern models for education have to be developed and adopted that take account of the physical and cultural landscape rather than a southern model imposed. This should not mean dumbing down education but better broadband infrastructure would allow a more modular approach to education and more distance learning. Sharing success stories is crucial to provide positive role models. This has to be led by local communities.
More recognition is needed for the role of northern cities, towns and villages and the fact that people in the north live in such communities.
If people are to remain in the north then they have to be allowed and supported to develop a modern northern economic model. This means careful development of oil, mineral and other resources as well as traditional harvesting and hunting of natural resources. If people are to live there than the north cannot simply be a giant nature reserve. The biggest threats to the ecology of the Arctic are from the south. Simply importing southern economic models and practices will not work.
More needs to be done to encourage innovation to develop this northern model. Innovation always means risk and accepting more risk – to both people, environment and capital – is necessary for the north to develop the solutions and economy it needs. Measures to encourage innovation could include: teaching entrepreneurship; making micro loans and other forms of venture finance available, perhaps by establishing a northern venture fund; an innovation portal for the north sharing success stories and providing information that would-be entrepreneurs need; partnerships between companies and local communities; X-prizes for innovations that the north needs on transport, communications, housing, energy and other forms of infrastructure.
Improving infrastructure is an obvious need. But this should draw on innovation for the north as above and not simply mean the importation of southern models and systems. Use of airships and drones should not be ruled out for transport and relaxation of regulations should be considered to enable this where necessary. Better renewable energy production would set an example on climate change and also reduce living costs. Broadband solutions would help on education, health and the economy and are an obvious priority.
Developing an Arctic brand with common themes whilst allowing local partnerships and regional variation would allow better marketing of the opportunities of the north to responsible companies. The north has a good story to tell but is not maximising its opportunities. As on the political challenge of climate change, a better communications strategy is needed to spur economic interest in an economic world where capital is abundant and investment opportunities that offer a decent rate of return are rare.
Scientific and environmental recommendations
More work is needed on possible futures for the Arctic and their implications. Dialling in different degrees of climate change depending on the speed of international action or continued inaction, what are possible future stable states for the Arctic and what would they mean for people, wildlife and the eco-system? This will demand continued international investment in science.
Arctic science needs also to professionalise its communications and to be less insular, meaning fewer meetings and conferences within closed groups and more time spent explaining what is happening to policy makers and other people with influence.
Science needs to encompass traditional knowledge by working much more closely with local communities. Where this is happening then this is already having a positive aspect on aspirations for education within local communities, for example through local employment at the new Canadian Arctic scientific research centre.
This Note reflects the Director’s personal impressions of the conference. No participant is in any way committed to its content or expression.
The Honourable Jean Charest PC
Partner, Mccarthy Tétrault, Montreal. Formerly: Premier of Quebec (2003-12); Member of the National Assembly of Quebec for Sherbrooke (1998-2012); Leader, Québec Liberal Party (1998-2003); Leader, Progressive Conservative Party of Canada (1993-98); Minister of Industry and Deputy Prime Minister of Canada (1993); Minister of the Environment (1991-93).
Mr Duane Smith
Chair & CEO, Inuvialuit Regional Corporation, Inuvik (2016-). Formerly: President, Inuit Circumpolar Council (Canada); Vice President, Inuit Tipiriit Kanatami.
Dr Karen Barnes
President and Vice-Chancellor, Yukon College (2011-). Formerly: Vice President, Academic, Yukon College (2008-11); Dean, Applied Arts and Science, Lethbridge College (2002-08).
Mr Mel Cappe OC
Professor, School of Public Policy and Governance, University of Toronto. Formerly: President, Institute for Research on Public Policy (2006-11); High Commissioner for Canada to the United Kingdom (2002-06); Clerk of the Privy Council and Secretary to the Cabinet (1999-2002); Deputy Minister of the Environment. A member of the Program Advisory Committee of the Canadian Ditchley Foundation.
Dr Kenneth Coates FRSc
Canada Research Chair in Regional Innovation, Johnson-Shoyama Graduate School of Public Policy, University of Saskatchewan (2012-); Senior Policy Fellow in Aboriginal and Northern Canadian Issues, Macdonald-Laurier Institute (2012-); co-Founder, Thematic Network on Circumpolar Innovation, University of the Arctic. Formerly: Director, International Centre for Northern Governance and Development (2013-16); Dean, Faculty of Arts, University of Waterloo (2006-11). A member of the Program Advisory Committee of the Canadian Ditchley Foundation.
Dr John England FRSc
Professor Emeritus, Department of Earth & Atmospheric Sciences, University of Alberta; Fellow: Royal Society of Canada, the Arctic Institute of North America and the Royal Canadian Geographic Society; recipient, W. Garfield Weston Award for Lifetime Achievement in Northern Research (2017) and W. A. Johnston Medal (distinguished career, Canadian Quaternary Association, 2013).
Gregory Finnegan PhD
Chief Executive Officer, formerly Managing Director, Na-Cho Nyäk Dun Development Corporation, Mayo, Yukon (2016-); Consultant, Climate Change Consulting, Whitehorse (2012-). Formerly: acting Chief of Geography, National Atlas of Canada; Chief Statistician, Yukon government.
Mr John Higginbotham
Senior Fellow and Head of Arctic Program, Centre for International Governance Innovation (2013-); Senior Distinguished Fellow, Carleton University. Formerly: Government of Canada: Assistant Deputy Minister, Transport Canada; Vice President, Canada School of Public Service; Assistant Deputy Minister for policy planning, communications, culture and federal-provincial relations, Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade; Minister (Political/Transboundary), Embassy of Canada, Washington, DC.
Dr Janet King
President, Canadian Northern Economic Development Agency, Ottawa (2014-); Board of Directors, Polar Knowledge Canada (2015-). Formerly: Assistant Deputy Minister, Northern Affairs Organisation, Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada; Assistant Deputy Minister of Policy and Strategic Direction, Western Economic Diversification Canada; Natural Resources Canada.
Mr Pierre Lortie CM, FCAE
Senior Business Advisor, Dentons Canada LLP (2006-); President, Canadian Ditchley Foundation; Director: Group Canam, ECN Capital Corporation; Executive Chairman, Quest Rare Minerals Ltd; Governor, Council of Canadian Academies; Director, Research Center, McGill University Health Center; Chairman, The Schmeelk Canada Foundation; Fellow and Past President, Canadian Academy of Engineering. Formerly: President and Chief Operating Officer: Bombardier Transportation; Bombardier Capital; Bombardier International; President, Bombardier Regional Aircraft Division; Bombardier Capital Group. A Governor, The Ditchley Foundation.
The Honourable Kevin Lynch PC, OC
Vice Chairman, BMO Financial Group. Formerly: Clerk of the Privy Council; Secretary to the Cabinet; Head of the Public Service of Canada (2006-09); Executive Director for the Canadian, Irish and Caribbean Constituency, International Monetary Fund, Washington, DC (2004-06); Deputy Minister of Finance (2000-04); Deputy Minister of Industry (1995-2000). Chairman of The Canadian Ditchley Foundation (2010-) and a Governor, The Ditchley Foundation.
Mr Don McCutchan
International Policy Adviser and Member, Gowlings International Strategic Advisory Group, Toronto; Director, Northstar Trade Finance Inc.; Adviser, Greta Energy. Formerly: Officer, Canadian Department of Finance; Executive Director, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Vice-President and Secretary, The Canadian Ditchley Foundation.
Professor Tony Penikett
Visiting Professor, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver (2006-); Senior Advisor, Arctic Security Program, Munk School of Global Affairs, University of Toronto. Formerly: Canada Fulbright Visiting Chair in Arctic Studies, University of Washington (2013-14); Deputy Minister for Negotiations, and later for Labour, Government of British Columbia (1997-2001); Senior Aboriginal Policy Advisor for the Premier of Saskatchewan (1995-97); Premier of Yukon (two terms, 1985-92).
The Hon. Ranj Pillai
Government of Yukon: Deputy Premier, Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources, Minister of Economic Development and Minister responsible for the Yukon Development Corporation and the Yukon Energy Corporation.
Mr Robert Sauvé
Chief Executive (formerly Deputy Secretary General), Société du Plan Nord/Plan Nord, Quebec (2015-). Formerly: Deputy Minister, Ministry of Natural Resources and Wildlife, Quebec (2009-12); Assistant Deputy Minister, Regional and Municipal Affairs; Deputy Minister, Ministry for the Regions; Assistant Secretary General, Ministry of Indigenous Affairs.
Mr Alan Shapiro
Co-Founder and Science Communicator, LitScientist (2016-); Co-Founder and Host, Science Slam Canada (2016-); Environmental Scientist, PGL Environmental. (2014-); Freelance Science Writer (2012-).
Mr Edward Struzik
Fellow, School of Policy Studies, Queen's Institute for Energy and Environmental Policy, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario (2009-); Board of Directors, Canadian Arctic Resources Committee (2015-); Contributing Writer, Yale Environment 360, School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University (2010-).
Captain (Navy) Steven Thornton CD
Canadian Armed Forces (1989-): Maritime Surface Officer, Royal Canadian Navy; Deputy Commander and Chief of Staff, Joint Task Force (North), Canadian Armed Forces (2015-). Formerly: Commandant, Royal Canadian Navy's senior warfare school, Halifax; Commanding Officer, HMCS Montréal; Commanding Officer, HMCS Ville de Québec; Executive Officer, HMCS Toronto (2009-11); Area Anti-Air Warfare Coordinator, HMCS Iroquois (2007).
Professor Warwick Vincent FRSc
Canada Research Chair in Aquatic Ecosystem Studies, Department of Biology, Laval University, Québec City, Québec; Fellow, Royal Society of Canada; honorary Fellow, Royal Society of New Zealand; Canadian delegate (2011-) to the Terrestrial Working Group of the International Arctic Science Committee (IASC); founding member, ArcticNet and the joint international laboratory, Takuvik (Québec-France); recipient, Polar Medal (Governor General of Canada, 2016) and the Martin Bergmann Medal (Royal Canadian Geographical Society, 2016). Formerly: Director/Scientific Director, interuniversity Centre for Northern Studies, Québec (2008-16).
Ms Jutta Wark
Director, Circumpolar Affairs, Global Affairs Canada. Formerly: dual role of Chair, Arctic Council Sustainable
Development Working Group during Canada's Council Chairmanship, and Director, Circumpolar Affairs, Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada; Transport Canada, Justice Canada and the United Nations in The Hague.
Dr Wang Hanling
Professor of international law and ocean affairs; Director, National Centre for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences; Adjunct Professor: China Ocean University, Shanghai Ocean University and Xiamen University; Research Fellow, Center for Ocean Development of China; global associate, Center for International Law, National University of Singapore; member, doctoral supervisory committee, Schulich School of law, Dalhousie University, Canada; member, China Center (Research Group of Maritime Affairs and the Law of the Sea), University of Macerata, Italy. Formerly: consultant to Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea, Office for Legal Affairs, United Nations.
Mr Mikaa Mered
Adjunct lecturer on Arctic economics, Lapland University of Applied Sciences, Finland (2016-).
Ms Aleqa Hammond
Member of the Danish Parliament (2015-). Formerly: Prime Minister of Greenland (2013-14); Leader, Siumut party (2009-14); Commissioner, Inuit Circumpolar Council (1999-2003).
Dr Atsushi Sunami
Vice President, Professor, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies, Tokyo; Special Advisor responsible for Science and Technology and Innovation, Cabinet Office; member: Advisory Board for the Promotion of Science and Technology Diplomacy, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan; Council for Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. Formerly: Fellow, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, Japan (2001-03).
REPUBLIC OF KOREA
Ambassador Kim Young-Jun
Ambassador for Arctic Affairs, Korean Ministry of Foreign Affairs; Representative of the Republic of Korea on the Arctic Council. Formerly: Korean Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Director-General for International Economic Affairs (2015-17) and Deputy Director-General for Bilateral Economic Affairs (2013-15); Korean Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade: Senior Coordinator for Trade Policy and Planning (2011-13) and Director for European Trade Division (2006-08).
Judge Vladimir Golitsyn
President (2014-) and Judge (2008-), International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea; Professor of International Law, Moscow State University of International Relations (2007-). Formerly: United Nations (1982-2007): Director, Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea (2004-07); Secretary, Plenary of the Preparatory Commission for the International Seabed Authority and the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (1987-94).
Dr Pavel Gudev
Leading Research Fellow, International Organisations and Global Political Regulation Sector, Primakov Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Russian Academy of Sciences (2017-); Member, Russian Council on International Affairs' (RIAC) Pool of Experts (2012-). Formerly: Senior Research Fellow, Centre for North American Studies, Primakov Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Russian Academy of Sciences (2011-17); Senior Research Fellow, Marine Board, Government of Russian Federation Scientific Support Center (2005-15).
Professor Valeriy Kryukov
Director (formerly Deputy Director), Science Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering (IEIE), Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk; Director, Center for Resource Economics, IEIE; Editor-in-Chief, All-Russian economic journal, EKO; Corresponding member, Russian Academy of Sciences (2011-).
Dr Natalia Y. Markushina
Doctor of Political Science, Professor, and Deputy Head of the Department of World Politics, School of International Relations, Saint-Petersburg State University; Expert of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
Professor Vladimir Masloboev
Vice President, and Director of Institute of Industrial Ecology Problems in the North, Kola Science Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences on Research, Development and Innovation.
Dr Dougal Goodman OBE FREng
Chief Executive, The Foundation for Science and Technology (2000-); consultant to the marine insurance market (2000-); Sloan Fellow, Graduate School of Business, Stanford University. Formerly: Deputy Director and Acting Director, British Antarctic Survey (1995-2000); BP: General Manager (1980-95); Manager, Cold Regions Offshore Research Programme; Operations Manager for North Sea oil fields; Head of Safety. Polar Medal for leading science expeditions to the Arctic and the Antarctic. OBE for services to science. A member of the Programme Committee of The Ditchley Foundation.
Dwayne Ryan Menezes PhD
Founder and Director, Polar Research and Policy Initiative (2016-) and Human Security Centre (2014-); Founder and Director, Think-Film Impact Production; Honorary Fellow, UCL Institute for Risk and Disaster Reduction, University College London (2017-); Associate Fellow, Institute of Commonwealth Studies, University of London (2015-). Formerly: Officer, Management Committee, UK Polar Network (2015-16); Consultant to Secretary-General of the Commonwealth, Commonwealth Secretariat (2014-16).
Dr Chandrika Nath
Acting Director, Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology, UK Parliament. Formerly: Glaciologist, British Antarctic Survey.
Dr Lawson Brigham
Distinguished Faculty and Fellow, University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF). Formerly: Distinguished Professor of Geography and Arctic Policy, UAF (2009-16); Chair, Arctic Council Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment (2004-09); Deputy Director, U.S. Arctic Research Commission (2001-08); U.S. Coast Guard Officer, Chief Strategic Planner, USCG Headquarters, and Polar Icebreaker Commanding Officer on Arctic and Antarctic Expeditions (1970-95).
Mr Craig Fleener
Senior Arctic Policy Advisor, Office of the Governor of Alaska. Formerly: Deputy Commissioner of Game, Subsistence and Habitat, Alaska Department of Fish & Game (2010-13); Director, Division of Subsistence (2008-10); Executive Director, Council of Athabascan Tribal Governments; first Director, Natural Resources, Fort Yukon; Regional Biologist; Deputy Mayor, City of Fort Yukon; U.S. Marine Corps; Alaska National Guard; boards of: Gwich'in Council International, International Porcupine Caribou Board, Yukon River Panel.
Dr Brendan Kelly
Executive Director, SEARCH: Study of Environmental Arctic Change, Fairbanks, Alaska; member, Polar Research Board, National Academy of Sciences; Senior Fellow, Center for the Blue Economy, Middlebury Institute of International Studies. Formerly: Faculty, University of Alaska; research scientist, National Marine Mammal Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Deputy Director, Arctic Sciences, National Science Foundation; Chief Scientist, Monterey Bay Aquarium; Assistant Director for Polar Science, White House Office of Science and Technology Policy.
Dr James Kendall
Regional Director, Alaska Regional Office, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM); BOEM Executive contact for the State of Alaska; Alaska Native Tribal Governments; Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act Corporations; industry; private and public interest groups; and other Federal Agencies.
Mr Thomas Pickering
Vice Chairman, Hills and Company, Washington, DC; Consultant, The Boeing Company. Formerly: Senior Vice-President International Relations and Member, Executive Council, The Boeing Company (2001-06); Under-Secretary of State for Political Affairs, U.S. Department of State (1997-2000); President, Eurasia Foundation (1996-97); Ambassador of the U.S. to the Russian Federation (1993-96), to India (1992-93); Permanent Representative to the United Nations, New York (1989-92). A Member of the Board of Directors, The American Ditchley Foundation.
Mr Rafe Pomerance
Chair, Arctic 21; independent consultant; Founder and President, Climate Policy Center. Formerly: President, Clean Air Cool Planet; Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Environment and Development, U.S. Department of State (1993-99); Senior Associate, World Resources Institute (1986-93); President, Friends of the Earth.
Captain Jonathan Spaner, USCG (Ret.)
McKinsey & Co. Washington, DC (2016-). Formerly: Commander, U.S. Coast Guard Sector San Diego (2014-16); Director, Emerging Policy, U.S. Coast Guard/author of USCG Arctic Strat (2012-14); Head of U.S. Delegation, C-polar Business Forum/Arctic Econ Council (2013-14); White House Fellow (2002-03).